Developing a greenhouse on Mars seems to have been a matter of discussion for the past few years. It more or less came about with the problem of whether or not astronauts had enough food and even oxygen when they go to space, particularly, when they have missions to planet Mars.
Plants would be grown indoors with artificial light. Hydroponics will also be used. This is a way of planting that uses water rather than soil in growing fruits and vegetables. Water can be extracted from the soil of Mars but nutrients (or fertilizers) can come from either human waste or imports from earth. In addition to this, the plan is to have a robotic system for harvesting the crops. Missions for this greenhouse is estimated to begin around the 2030s, and its eventual aim is for the astronauts to be independent of the food they receive from Earth.
Will the astronauts have enough water, food and oxygen? (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2015, from http://www.mars-one.com/faq/health-and-ethics/will-the-astronauts-have-enough-water-food-and-oxygen
Growing Food for a Martian Table. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://2014.spaceappschallenge.org/challenge/growing-food-martian-table-integrating-deployable-/
Moskowitz, Clara. Mission for Mars: What’s for Dinner? (2011 September 13) Retrieved May 6, 2015, from http://www.space.com/12919-nasa-mars-astronaut-space-food.html